Since the creation of community social frameworks, shocking political assassinations in modern history have been a component of social reality. Some were shot, some were stabbed, and some were bombed.
Political assassinations are mostly less about the person himself and more about his political position and ideologies. In addition to causing public outrage, grief, and pain – political assassinations tend to bring a billion conspiracy theories and reasons for why they happened.
Here are some of the major political assassinations in history!
Archduke Franz Ferdinand, 1914
Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the successor to the Austro-Hungarian Dynasty, was killed at Sarajevo in June 1914 by a Serbian called Gavilo Princip. Princip was a supporter of the nationalist movement Young Bosnia, which intended to liberate Bosnia from the chains of foreign control. He was angered by the Austro-Hungarian invasion of Bosnia. The assassination is largely seen as the trigger for the commencement of World War One in August 1914
Mahatma Gandhi, 1948
Gandhi was assassinated in Delhi on January 30, 1948, by Hindu extremist Nathuram Godse. He was a few minutes late for the gathering since he was strolling from Birla House to the field where his evening prayer services were conducted.
How a global symbol of non-violence was killed en route to praying made this one of the most tragic and shocking political assassinations. The killing shook the whole globe, and thousands of Indians flocked to the roads to pay their respects to the nation’s father.
John F Kennedy, 1963
Former Marine Lee Harvey Oswald shot and killed the 35th US President John F. Kennedy in a motorcade in Dallas on November 22, 1963. Kennedy is recognized as one of the finest and most beloved presidents in American history, despite lasting less than three years in office.
Lee Harvey Oswald, his shooter, was arrested but murdered before he could be prosecuted. Oswald was shot and killed by a nightclub owner just two days after the tragedy. Many have seen this as evidence of a larger cover-up and a conspiracy.
Martin Luther King Jr., 1968
James Earl Ray fatally murdered the renowned American political activist Martin Luther King Jr. on a hotel balcony in Memphis on April 4, 1968. James Earl Ray, his assailant, first admitted guilt to murder but then retracted his statement. Many people, including King’s family, feel that his killing was orchestrated by the government and/or the mafia to quiet him.
The assassination prompted a phase of nationwide grief, which aided in the passing of an equitable housing measure, the civil rights era’s final significant legislative success.
Indhira Gandhi, 1984
Indira Gandhi, the country’s third Prime Minister and the country’s sole female leader, was another casualty of religious conflicts in India. Gandhi was a controversial character who backed the independence cause in East Pakistan, resulting in the creation of Bangladesh.
Her Sikh bodyguards killed her in 1984 after commanding military action at the Golden Temple in Amritsar, one of the most sacred sites for Sikhs. Gandhi’s killing sparked a wave of aggression against the Sikh community throughout India, with alleged 8,000 deaths as a result.
Yitzhak Rabin, 1995
Yitzhak Rabin was Israel’s fifth Prime Minister, elected in 1974 and 1992 on a campaign that supported the Israeli-Palestinian Peace Negotiations.
The Oslo Accords, intended to settle Israeli-Palestinian disputes, were signed by the Israeli Prime Minister. On November 4, 1995, a right-wing militant named Yigal Amir became enraged and killed the Prime Minister. There has been no agreement between the two countries since his death. Many people see his killing as the end of the sort of peace he envisioned and strove for, making it one o the major political assassinations.
Benazir Bhutto, 2007
Benazir Bhutto was Pakistan’s first female Prime Minister and the first woman to lead a democratic administration in a Muslim majority country. She was also one of the nation’s most powerful political personalities. Her death, caused by a suicide bomber during a political gathering in 2007, shocked the entire world. However, her killing boosted public backing for her party, the Pakistan Peoples’ Party, which gained majority seats in the two-month-old elections.
Not only did these assassinations play a significant role in the creation and fall of some of history’s most powerful civilizations, but they also continue today as a way to defend one party’s honor over another. What has to be noted is the impact it has for years to come!
Originating in 330 A.D., the Byzantine Empire was a huge and strong civilization. The empire was established 1000 years ago on the Eastern side of the Great Roman Empire and thrived to become the most dominant and prosperous until Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II conquered it in 1453 A.D.
The Byzantine Empire was a center of education and was renowned for its writing, folk art, and architecture. With all the significance of the Byzantine empire, there are a lot of topics one can talk about.
In this blog post, we will discuss some fascinating facts about the Byzantine Empire.
1. Byzantine Empire was not always called Byzantine
Byzantines referred to themselves as “Romans.” It took a long time after the fall of the Empire for the phrase “Byzantine Empire” to be coined.
Byzantine Empire is the name used by contemporary historians to separate the state from the western region of the Roman Empire. The name is a reference to Constantinople, the capital city of the Byzantine Empire, which was established in Byzantium.
2. The Byzantines had a bizarre way of fighting political battles
Instead of holding elections, presidential candidates went to great lengths to see who could physically inflict the greatest pain on their opponents to prevent them from coming their way.
They would settle political rivalries by blinding, amputating, or any other form of mutilation that would render the person futile for leadership. Some even opted for castration as it was believed to be the greatest punishment and would deprive the person of a potential heir.
3. Chariot Racing was huge back in the day
The popularity of chariot racing is among the many interesting facts about Byzantine Empire. The risk of fatality was quite great as the chariot Racers ran the risk of being pulled behind their horses and killed.
The thrills, carnage, and potential gambling winnings appear to draw people to racing. Most of these charioteers were slaves, but winning a race might win them as much as 15 bags of gold.
4. Adulterers and those with the knowledge of adultery were punished
Emperor Leo III implemented rules governing close relationships as part of the legal system changes he oversaw. During Leo’s rule, a married man who engaged in adultery received 12 lashes as punishment in addition to a fine. An unmarried man found fornicating would get six lashes.
According to some sources, those involved in adultery would have their noses cut off, while those who knew the sin would be flogged.
5. The Byzantines were the first to use the Greek Fire
The origin of Greek fire in 672 AD is one of the most fascinating facts about the Byzantine Empire. Large siphons set on the prows of the Byzantine ships were used to pump the substance onto opposing ships and men. It would ignite once it came in contact with seawater, and extinguishing it required tremendous effort.
Throughout the seventh, eighth, and tenth centuries, Byzantium was repeatedly protected by this substance against Arab and Russian invasions.
6. Constantinople’s fall due to cannons
One piece of military hardware, known as the cannon, bears a significant portion of the blame for how Constantinople itself fell after a 53-day siege in 1453 AD.
The gun launched cannonballs that weighed around half a ton. It destroyed defenses that had been in place for thousands of years. A single weapon has destroyed the formidable fortifications of the formerly impregnable city.
7. The rise of the Orthodox Church
The Greek-speaking church in Byzantium acquired significant liturgical variations from the Catholic, Latin-speaking church in the West throughout the ages, even though it was virtually always a Christian nation. The Eastern Orthodox Church in the Byzantine East and the Roman Catholic Church in the West are two distinct streams of Christianity that resulted from this “Great Schism.”
8. The Byzantines were the first to try rosemary
The Byzantines were the first people to cook using saffron and rosemary to flavor roasted lamb. These aromatics, which were well-known in antiquity, had not previously been considered to be culinary components.
The Byzantines were also the first to enjoy eggplant, lemons, and oranges, which were mainly unfamiliar to ancient Europeans.
9. Most of the ancient literature was saved by the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine intellectuals who upheld the old traditions of literature and learning rescued the majority of the philosophical writings of thinkers like Aristotle and Plato and the historical manuscripts of Greece and Rome. The Byzantines brought back works lost in the West for many years.
10. The Byzantines expanded our range of jams
The Greeks and Romans have known jams since ancient times. Still, additional jellies based on pears, citrons, and lemons throughout the Byzantine Empire also appeared. The expanding sugar supply aided the confectioner’s innovation.
The Byzantine Empire produced a rich tradition of art and learning and acted as a military barrier between the states. We mentioned some of the fascinating facts about the Byzantine Empire that people might still not be aware of, although it lasted for more than a thousand years.
Admit it, watching historical movies gives you a realistic depiction of what could have happened in the past. With a taste of drama, action, adventure, or even satire and comedy, films with historical references are extraordinary. In a world of modern cinematographic themes and storylines, why not discover the wonders of historical movies?
As the CoVID-19 Pandemic continues to lock you down at home, you might be running out of movies to watch with your streaming apps. Luckily, we prepared a list of some of the must-watch historical films you should add to your interests.
Directed by one of the legendary Hollywood actors and directors, Mel Gibson plays the role of Scottish national hero and warrior William Wallace. Whether you are Scottish or not, historical movies like Braveheart sends a highly inspiring feeling that triggers an uncontainable sense of patriotism. The story is set in 14th Century Great Britain during the reign of King Edward I Longshanks (played by Patrick McGoohan) and his rather insane heir, Edward, The Prince of Wales (Peter Hanly).
The elder Edward’s reign succumbs to several major crises against the Scots of the north due to his radical campaign of expanding England’s reaches to Scotland, Wealas (Wales), and Hibernia (Ireland). William Wallace, son of an executed Scottish noble, resorted to rioting after his newly wedded wife, Murron MacClannough, was killed by English soldiers. Such an act will eventually spark the Scottish War for Independence.
From the title itself, Braveheart sends a triggering feed to the hearts of its watchers. The sad reality of the Medieval Age’s gruesome daily life also tells you more about the Scots’ conditions under the tyrannic rule of Edward Longshanks. The Braveheart of Mel Gibson’s William Wallace will witness love, triumph, loss, and death.
2.) OUTLAW KING
Directed by David MacKenzie, his 2016 film Hell or High Water was nominated for Best Picture Oscar (Mackenzie himself should also be selected for the director). Starring Chris Pine as the Scottish King Robert the Bruce, which is known for his exemplary performance in Hell or High Water. Outlaw King tells the gripping story of persistent rebellion, betrayal and love in adversity.
Outlaw King is one of those historical movies which revolves around the Post-Wallace period —after the brutal execution of Scotland’s Braveheart, who was hanged, drawn, and quartered. One of Wallace’s accomplices, Robert the Bruce, son of Robert the Bruce, son of Robert the Bruce, son of Robert the Bruce (and it goes on…) played by Chris Pine, resumes the Scottish War for Independence after dissenting against the old and imbecile King Edward Longshanks. Bruce and his people faces the struggle of trying to topple the world’s greatest military force and most brutal overlord—England.
You can think of Outlaw King as a sequel to Braveheart, with some overlap between the beginning of the new Mackenzie film and the ending of the 23-year-old best picture winner Mel Gibson. Both films take love as the axis, and historical events and actions revolve around it. The protagonists are unwilling to participate in the war. Still, they are driven by a sense of justice and a higher sense of mission, from King Robert de Brus’ multiple epic battle sequences, mud, blood and internal organs deep in the knees.
One of the renowned award-winning director Christopher Nolan’s masterpiece, Dunkirk, sends you back to the height of Germany’s invasion of France and western Europe in 1940. Christopher Nolan’s “Dunkirk” project subtly reversed the family trilogy: land, sea and air. Nolan discussed the week of fighting during World War II from May 26 to June 4, 1940, and the efforts to rescue the British and French forces in these three parts gave the time frame for each piece.
Therefore, the film has leapt in time, and every action clue is advancing irregularly until these three clues form the film’s apparent conclusion. It successfully retreated more than 300,000 soldiers (of which about three-thirds). The second is British, and the other is British soldier). -The third French) from Dunkirk, France, across the English Channel to England. Of course, retaining this fighting force is crucial to preserving Britain and the result of the war; retreat is a failure to help ensure victory.
Nolan’s construction turns a step forward into a mosaic, breaking the sense of unifying the arc of drama in a series of observing anecdotes, isolated events and isolated confrontations. It highlights individual bravery and heroic behaviors, which depend on the infinite details of choices and opportunities, while general historical events depend on these details. By separating the three intermediate lines and the field of action, Nolan hints at the seemingly miraculous synergy of uncertainty, uncertainty, quasi-metaphysical randomness, and the different events that make up the result.
4.) OPERATION FINALE
In 1960, Mossad agents arrested Adolf Eichmann in Buenos Aires, and Eichmann was extradited to Israel, where he will be tried next year, in the story of Chris Weitz (Chris Weitz) dramatizes the new film “The Finale” in the style of a thriller. The film is cleverly divided into three parts: action, backstory and teaching elements. They are intertwined throughout the film, but each provides a unique emotion and triggers different ideas; they can also be other movies.
The protagonist Peter Malkin (Oscar Isaac), is a young agent who first appeared in Austria in 1954. He was wrong: to hunt down another Nazi, he killed an innocent person. His boss Isser Harel (Lior Raz), did not deny this fault, but he still has confidence in Peter and made him a key figure in the team that went to Argentina to search for and kidnap Eichmann. Eichmann’s (Ben Kingsley) arrest asked him not to scream or try to escape, so Dr Hannah Regoff (Melanie Laurent) also appeared to calm him down. But Hannah also turned out to be Peter’s predecessor, and he wanted to restart their relationship.
The backstory includes scenes from the massacre, depicting the murder of Peter’s sister Fruma (Rita Pauls) and her young son, and shows Eichmann as a commander or at least an overseer A scene from the massacre in which Jews were forced to enter a well, were forced to dig and were then shot dead by a group of Nazi troops. Weitz’s cinematic imagination cannot cope with these unbearable, almost inexpressible horrors. The film’s main plot is to get Eichmann (who lives in Argentina under the pseudonym Ricardo Clement) from incarceration in Israel.
5.) THE RESISTANCE BANKER
Based on a true story, the Dutch Netflix original Resistance Banker is a slow and suffocating tense movie. Driven by gritty realism and an accurate representation of the Nazi-occupied countries, Resistance Banker is an impressive film worth watching, even if its rhythm makes it no longer a fascinating movie. The background of THE RESISTANCE BANKER is the troubled World War II and the Nazi-occupied Amsterdam.
The story tells the banker Walraven Van Hall (Barry Azma) at a critical moment of World War II who decided to fund the Dutch resistance to the Nazis. With the help of their brother Gis van Hall (Jacob De Wig), the two began to transfer money from the bank to the hands of the resistance movement to stop the German war machine. Of course, things are not inevitably that simple. What follows is an organized game of cat and mouse because the resistance movement tries to frustrate the Nazis because they find out what they are doing while finding out if there are any discoveries. Try not to find spies in the middle.
“Wally” began working in the French resistance long before the Nazis invaded France and secretly formed an alliance with the Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts organizations, helping to save the lives of thousands of war orphans. Under the guise of a charitable fund, Walraven van Hall helped Dutch sailors stranded abroad due to the war to launder money for their shadow bank. Like many Dutch historical movies, it tells a story worth knowing about the little-known heroes of WWII.
These are just five (5) of the best nationalistic historical movies. Just in case you have exhausted your movie list after watching these remarkable films, watch out for our next blog! Get ready to know about the five (5) highest-grossing historical series!
The AP World History Program aims to provide high school and college students with a basic and firm knowledge of history.
This program is designed to prepare high school and college students for higher education. Students are required to use their reasoning and assessment skills to analyze and comment on the significant historical events of the US.
This guide will walk you through the basic requirements to introduce you to the AP World History Program to help you pass your exam with flying colors.
What is the AP World History Exam?
The main goal of the AP World History Exam is to test your capabilities to develop and make historical arguments as well as comparisons. It is equivalent to the World History Introductory course comprising two semesters in a college or university.
It aims to provide an in-depth understanding of significant advancements, events, and famous individuals that are a prominent part of our documented history.
AP World History Course Themes
The course comprises five major themes to help students build relevant connections between historical developments. It encompasses nearly all major and minor developments that took place in different places of the world at different times.
The themes include:
Humans and the Environment
Cultural Developments and Interactions
Social Interactions and Organization
Technology and Innovation
The course contents contain nine units that range from different periods and carry different percentages in the exam. Here is the detailed outline of the course units:
Period c 1200 -1450 | Exam percentage: 8-10%
The Global Tapestry
Networks of Exchange
Period c 1450-1750 | Exam percentage: 12-15%
Period c 1750 – 1900 | Exam percentage: 12-15%
Consequences of industrialization
Period c1900 – present | Exam percentage: 8-10%
Cold war and decolonization
The duration of the AP World History Exam is three hours and 15 minutes which is divided into two sections. The first section is further divided into two parts called Part A and Part B. The timelines for each section are as follow:
Section 1- Part A: 55 minutes.
Section 1- Part B: 40 minutes.
Section 2: 1 hour and 40 minutes (1 hour for the first question and 40 minutes for the second question)
Format & Sample Questions
The AP World History Exam requires students to present answers that are supported by the references to the relevant historical events.
As the documents are already provided in section 2, you can use them to support your answers. Do not just simply quote the document, you must describe why the document supports your argument.
Section 1, Part A – reserves 40% of the exam score – is composed of 55 multiple choice questions for the time duration of 55 minutes. It means you will get one minute for each question.
Section 1, Part B – reserves 20% of the exam score – requires you to give short answers to the free-response questions in minutes. The questions can range in the form of texts, maps, images, or graphs.
Question 1 – compulsory – contains one or two secondary sources and aims at the historical advancements that transpired during 1200 years to present.
Question 2 – compulsory – has one primary source and aims at the historical advancements that occurred during 1200 years to present.
Questions 3 & 4 – optional – you can select one of them. Question 3 is based on the years 1200 to 1750 whereas question 4 is aimed at the years 2001 to 2001. These questions do not contain any source.
Section 2 of the AP World History Exam has two questions that make 40% of the total exam score.
Question 1 – compulsory – is related to the historical events from 1754-1980. You will be given seven documents and are required to support your answer with the help of those documents. This question has a time duration of 1 hour and makes 25% of the exam score.
Question 2 – is a long essay question and makes 15% of the exam score. You will get to choose one question from the three questions that cover different historical periods such as, 1200 – 1750, 1450-1900, or 1750- 2001. You are required to propose a thesis and support your argument based on your knowledge and the lessons AP history class.
To ace any exam, it is necessary to understand its pattern and how the scoring works. Here we have explained the scoring guidelines for each section so you can understand the influence and concept of each question of each section.
Scoring guidelines for Section 1
Section 1A is composed of 55 multiple-choice questions. Each question has 1 mark that can only be scored by choosing the correct answer out of 4 choices given in the question.
There are three sub-questions for every question to be answered in Section 1-B which allow students to earn 0 to 3 points for each question. Following is the essential scoring criteria based on the response content:
Score 3: The response covers all three requirements of the question.
Score 2: The response covers two of the requirements of the question.
Score 1: The response covers any one of the requirements of the question.
Score 0: The response covers none of the requirements of the question.
Score NR: No or blank response.
Scoring guidelines for Section 2
Section 2 has two parts that require 1 answered question each part. The first part is a document-based question, while the second is a long essay.
For question one, you can earn a maximum of 7 points. To score high, your answers should demonstrate your knowledge and skills as you support your answer with the evidence. Further, break down of point scoring for question 1 is as follow:
Thesis/Claim: 0-1 point
Contextualization: 0-1 point
Evidence: 0-3 points
Analysis and Reasoning: 0-2 points
In part B, you can earn a maximum of 6 points. The response requirements remain the same as that of part one. Further breakdown of scoring criteria for part B is as follow:
Thesis/Claim: 0-1 point
Contextualization: 0-1 point
Evidence: 0-2 points (1 point for single evidence and 2 points for supporting argument)
Analysis and Reasoning: 0-2 points
Who should take the AP World History Exam?
This exam is best for high school students having an interest in world history. Students wanting to get better at world history should take this exam and the best part is, you can earn college credit if you perform well.
How to Prepare for the AP World History Exam
The best way to prepare for this exam is to review some past AP World History papers and memorize critical historical events to refer to them in support of your arguments. Furthermore, reading good books by credible authors can help you prepare for this exam. One such example would be, History Adventures: World Of Characters. It relates and interactively illustrates historical events in an engaging way by adopting a lively narrative style to make history easy for you. Detailed books covering every aspect of important historical events is what you need to pass this exam with flying colors and History Adventures: World Of Characters is certainly one of those.
Essential Tips to Prepare For AP World History Exam
Selecting the best study material: An important thing to consider while preparing for this exam is to always use the best study resources. It’s highly recommended to use books that cover all the aspects of the course comprehensively so that you don’t miss out on any important details. So, a good book like History Adventures: World Of Characters can make all the difference.
Time Management: Time management is a crucial factor in this exam because every section and question is strictly timed. You will have to be very careful while attempting every question and the amount of time you invest in it.
Planning: Never start attempting the questions as soon as you read them. It is always good to read the whole question paper once at least and start with questions that seem easy to you.
Practice: Practice is the key to success, similarly practicing with AP World History free-response questions will help you succeed in this exam. Find solved papers and compare your answers with them for a better understanding or learn how the evidence and references are used accurately. Practice until you have perfected every aspect of your exam.
The AP World History Exam is designed to enhance students’ skills in terms of analyzing, reasoning, and comparing historical events. To pass this 3 hours and 15 minutes exam, you need to have an inclusive knowledge of all major events that span over 1200 CE to the present.
The past papers available online can help you identify the consistent historical events. It will enable you to narrow down the mass of information to selected few occasions that are most likely to be present in your exam.
From there you only need all-inclusive books like History Adventures: World Of Characters that teach everything you need to learn to clear your exam in a super interactive style with the help of different effects. It is one of those kinds of books that makes the learning process highly stimulating and engaging for the students leading to an effective and firm grasp of the AP World History Course contents.