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Misfires in the Sky: WWII’s Worst Manufactured Planes

World War II was a time of great technological innovation, and the aircraft industry was no exception. New and improved planes were being developed all the time, but not all of them were successful.

Some were plagued with problems that made them difficult to fly, unreliable, or simply not effective in combat. These planes are a cautionary tale about the importance of careful design and testing.

In this article, we will take a look at some of the worst manufactured planes of World War II.

1. Messerschmitt Me 210

Image of the Me 210 aircraft in the sky.
Image by: Wikipedia

The Messerschmitt Me 210 was a twin-engined heavy fighter aircraft developed in Germany in the early 1940s. It was intended to replace the Messerschmitt Bf 110, but it was plagued with problems and was quickly replaced by the Me 410 in 1942.

The Me 210 had several design flaws, including poor handling, instability, and a tendency to stall. It was also heavy and difficult to control at high altitudes.

The engines were unreliable and prone to failure. The wings were too thin and could not withstand the stresses of high-speed flight. Lastly, the cockpit was cramped and visibility was poor.

Only a small number of Me 210s were produced, and they saw only limited use in combat. The aircraft was a failure, and it is considered to be one of the worst manufactured planes of World War II.

2. Junkers Ju 87 Stuka

The Junkers JU 87 Stuka.
Image by: Sciencehow

“The Stuka was more than just a terror weapon – its ability to deliver bombs where needed with then unheard of precision made it a potent war machine.” – David C. Isby

The Junkers Ju 87 Stuka was a German dive bomber developed in the 1930s. It was known for its distinctive siren, which was used to terrorize enemy troops. 

The Stuka was very effective in the early stages of World War II when it was used to support German ground forces in Poland, France, and the Low Countries.

However, it became increasingly vulnerable to enemy fighters as the war progressed. The plane was also very difficult to control at low altitudes, making it a target for anti-aircraft fire.

Hence, the Stuka was eventually phased out of service as more modern aircraft became available.

3. Fiat G.55 Centauro

The G55 Centauro aircraft on the runway.
Image by: Wikipedia

The Fiat G.55 Centauro was a single-engine, single-seat fighter aircraft developed in Italy during World War II. It was powered by a single Daimler-Benz DB 605A-1 engine, which gave it a top speed of 387 mph and a range of 1,160 km (721 mi). 

Despite its impressive performance, the G.55 had a number of issues. It had a high landing speed and was prone to spinning. The cockpit was cramped and visibility was poor.

This made it a challenge for even experienced pilots to fly, and it earned the nickname “widowmaker” among Italian pilots.

The G.55 was a victim of its own ambition. It was designed to be the best fighter aircraft in the world, but it was too ambitious. The aircraft was simply too difficult to fly for most pilots, and it never lived up to its potential.

4. Aichi B7A Ryusei

Picture of the B7A Ryusei plane.
Image by: Wikipedia

The Aichi B7A Ryusei was a Japanese torpedo bomber developed in the early 1940s. It was designed to replace the Nakajima B5N Kate, and it was one of the most advanced torpedo bombers in the world at the time. However, it was also one of the most difficult to fly, and it had a high accident rate.

The B7A was powered by a single Nakajima Sakae 21 engine, which gave it a top speed of 500 km/h (311 mph) and a range of 2,700 km (1,680 mi).

It was armed with one 7.7 mm Type 97 machine gun in the nose and two 20 mm Type 99 cannons in the wings. It could also carry a torpedo or a bomb load of up to 1,000 kg (2,204 lb).

The B7A entered service with the Imperial Japanese Navy in 1943, but it saw limited use in combat. It had a high accident rate. As a result, it was often replaced by the Mitsubishi G4M Betty.

5. Mitsubishi G4M Betty

The Mitsubishi G4M Betty aircraft flying in the sky.
Image by: Wikipedia

The Mitsubishi G4M Betty was a Japanese medium bomber developed in the early 1940s. It was one of the most important bombers in the Japanese arsenal, and it was used in a variety of roles, including torpedo bombing, dive bombing, and level bombing.

The G4M entered service with the Imperial Japanese Navy in 1941, and it saw extensive use in the Pacific War. It was a reliable and effective bomber, and it was responsible for sinking a number of Allied ships.

However, the G4M was also vulnerable to enemy fighters, and it suffered heavy losses in combat. As a result, it was gradually replaced by the Mitsubishi G6M.

Only a small number of G4Ms were produced, and they were withdrawn from service in 1945.

Final Word

In the heated furnace of World War II, while many aircraft soared to fame, others faltered due to design flaws and rushed production. From Germany’s problematic Me 210 to Japan’s accident-prone B7A Ryusei, the skies were not kind to every plane.

These missteps in aviation remind us that in the race to dominate the skies, meticulous design and thorough testing are paramount. Even in the chaos of war, quality should never be compromised.

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The Depths of Despair: 5 Worst Prisons of the 20th Century

Prisons are meant to be correction institutions, but some have become synonymous with brutality, torture, and neglect. From ancient times to the present, there have been prisons that have inflicted unbearable suffering on inmates. Here are the 5 worst prisons in history that showcase the dark side of justice and unimaginable suffering. 

Tuol Sleng Prison, Cambodia 

A picture of the Tuol Sleng prison in Cambodia.
Image by: Open Democracy

Tuol Sleng, also known as S-21, was a secret prison operated by the Khmer Rouge regime during the 1960s. It had an estimated 20,000 prisoners held and tortured. The conditions were brutal, and the fate of most of the prisoners was execution. 

Voices from S-21: Terror and History in Pol Pot’s Secret Prison” by David Chandler has many exciting and chilling insights into the history and conditions of Tuol Sleng prison. According to the author, the prison was originally a high school.

The author also discussed that the prisoners were often subjected to brutal torture, including waterboarding, electric shocks, beatings, and psychological tactics.

Alcatraz Island, USA 

The Alcatraz Island prison in San Francisco, USA.
Image by: VOA News

Alcatraz Island is a former San Francisco federal prison from 1934 to 1963. During its time as a prison, it accommodated some of the most infamous criminals in American history, including George “Machine Gun” Kelly and Al Capone.

The prison had a reputation for having strict regulations and difficult living situations. Prisoners had little access to the outside world and sunshine.

The prison also had a reputation for being inescapable because of its remote island location and strict security measures. Due to this, the majority of these attempts failed. 

However, the escape attempt made in 1962 by Frank Morris and the Anglin brothers has been the subject of much writing, filmmaking, and television programming.

Carandiru Penitentiary, Brazil 

The exterior of the Carandiru Penitentiary in Brazil.
Image by: Pinterest

The Carandiru Penitentiary, a prison in São Paulo, Brazil, is known for its overcrowded and violent conditions. The prison could house around 4000 inmates, but it was packed with 7000 plus inmates, making the situation worse for prisoners. 

On October 2, 1992, a riot broke out in prison, and the police were called to restore order. The police officers, however, used excessive force, and in the end, 111 inmates were killed. The incident became known as the “Carandiru Massacre” and was a turning point in Brazil’s penal system.

The Carandiru Penitentiary was eventually closed in 2002, and its remaining inmates were transferred to other prisons. The prison site has since been demolished, and a park has been built to commemorate the victims of the massacre. 

Hanoi Hilton, Vietnam 

Overview of the Hanoi Hilton prison in Vietnam.
Image by: Flickr

Located in the capital of Hanoi, the Hanoi Hilton was a prison used by the North Vietnamese army during the Vietnam War to detain American prisoners of war (POWs).

The prisoners were subjected to cruelty, including isolation, psychological torment, and physical abuse. One of the exciting insights about Hanoi Hilton is the system of communication the prisoners came up with.

According to the memoir “Faith of My Fathers” by John McCain, a prisoner of the Vietnam War, he and his fellow prisoners communicated by tapping on walls and other means, and this allowed them to maintain a sense of connection and camaraderie even in the face of isolation and torture.

Black Dolphin Prison, Russia Black

Black Dolphin Prison, also referred to as Penal Colony No. 6, is one of Russia’s most notorious prisons, renowned for its strict and oppressive rules. 

The prison was initially constructed in 1745 as a fortress to guard the southern borders of the Russian Empire. It was transformed into a prison in the 20th century and has housed some of Russia’s most dangerous criminals, including terrorists and serial killers. Famous Cannibal Vladimir Nikolayevich Nikolayev is also one of the inmates. 

Black Dolphin is renowned for its strict policies and use of isolation cells, where inmates can spend up to 22 hours per day in solitary confinement. They are only served four portions of soup daily, and they must respond ‘yes, sir’ every time an officer orders something.

To keep its inmates under control, the prison employs a variety of physical restraints and force.


In conclusion, these five jails stand for some of the worst inmate mistreatment in recorded history. Even though some of these prisons are no longer in operation, their cruelty and inhumanity legacy haunts us.

It is critical to remember the crimes against humanity committed in these facilities and to work toward a just and humane method of criminal justice. 

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The Islamic Golden Age: An Inspiring Tale of Science, Art, and Philosophy

From the 8th to the 14th century, the Islamic Golden Age of Science was a time of outstanding academic, cultural, and scientific advancements. Islamic scholars made significant contributions to many areas of knowledge during this time. It covered astronomy, chemistry, physics, philosophy, medicine, and arithmetic. 

In the period of scientific advancement, the House of Wisdom, also known as Bayt-al-Hikmah, was extremely important. In this article, we’ll examine some surprising things you did not know about the Islamic Golden Age of Science. 

So, let’s get going! 

Islam Had One of The First Libraries in the World

Image showing teachings in the House of Wisdom.
Image by: Wikipedia

In the ninth century, Harun al-Rashid, the ruler of the Abbasid Empire, established the House of Wisdom in Baghdad. It was a gathering place for academics from various backgrounds and religions to exchange ideas and information. The vast library of the House of Wisdom was filled with books and manuscripts from all over the globe, including works by Greek, Roman, Persian, and Indian authors.

The House of Wisdom was not just a library, but a center of innovation and creativity that produced significant advancements in various fields of knowledge.” – Thomas F. Glick.

The House of Wisdom made one of the most significant achievements by translating Greek philosophical and scientific writings into Arabic. This translation movement assisted in preserving and disseminating ancient knowledge that had been neglected or lost in Europe.

Muslims Invented Algebra and Trigonometry

The works of Abu-al Wafa in trigonometry.
Image by: Muslim Heritage

During the Golden Age, Islamic scholars made significant contributions to mathematics. Algebra is said to have been created by Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, one of the most well-known mathematicians of this time. In his ground-breaking book, he pioneered using letters to symbolize unknown quantities, “Al-Kitab al-mukhtasar fi hisab al-jabr wa’l-muqabala” (The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing).

The creation of trigonometry was another essential addition to mathematics. The first table of sines was created by the mathematician Abu al-Wafa’ al-Buzjani, who is attributed to helping solve issues in astronomy and navigation.

Alhazen, Pioneer of Optics in the Islam World

Picture of Alhazen who contributed to study of optics.
Image by: Islam Online

Ibn al-Haytham, also known as Alhazen, was a pioneering Arab mathematician and physicist who significantly contributed to the study of optics. His Book of Optics, written in the 11th century, was a landmark work that influenced the development of optics in Europe for centuries. He also discovered the principles of reflection and refraction, which explain how light behaves when it passes through different materials. 

His work laid the foundation for the development of lenses and other optical devices, ultimately inspiring other scholars to make significant advances in the field of ophthalmology, including the development of surgical techniques for cataracts and other eye conditions.

The Measurement of the Position of the Planets and Stars

Image showing the work of Muslim scientists in the field of Astronomy.
Image by: Astronomy Trek

Another area where Islamic scholars made essential contributions was astronomy. One of the most significant astronomers of the Islamic Golden Age was al-Battani, also known as Albategnius. He created new techniques for computing astronomical data and made exact measurements of the positions of the planets and stars.

Al-Farghani was another famous astronomer. He produced a book titled “Elements of Astronomy” that was used as a European textbook for many years. He also made significant advances in geography and was the first to determine the Earth’s circumference.

Contribution to the Field of Medicine

The practice of medicine in the Muslim world.
Image by: KAWA News

The discipline of medicine has significantly benefited from the contributions of Islamic scholars. One of the most well-known doctors of the Islamic Golden Age was Al-Razi, also known as Rhazes. He contributed significantly to pediatrics, obstetrics, and ophthalmology and authored several books on medicine.

Ibn Sina, also known as Avicenna, was another famous physician. He wrote the “Canon of Medicine,” used as a standard medical text in Europe for many years. He was the first to describe meningitis and majorly contributed to pharmacology and anatomy.


In conclusion, the Islamic Golden Age of Science was a remarkable period in human history that saw an explosion of scientific, philosophical, and artistic creativity. Despite being primarily overshadowed by the Renaissance in Europe, the Islamic Golden Age produced many important innovations and discoveries that continue to shape our world today. 

Perhaps most importantly, the Islamic Golden Age of Science was marked by a spirit of intellectual curiosity and openness to new ideas, allowing scholars of different cultures and faiths to collaborate and exchange ideas.

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Life in the Golden Age of Ancient Rome: The Glorious Reign

The Pax Romana, a period of approximately two centuries of Roman imperial history, began with the reign of Emperor Augustus in 27 BC and lasted until the death of Marcus Aurelius in 180 AD. 

This era was characterized by relative peace, stability, and prosperity. Roman Empire reached heights like never before, exerting its influence throughout the Mediterranean region and beyond. 

Historians claim that life during the golden age of Ancient Rome was full of excitement, entertainment, innovations, and a cosmopolitan atmosphere. However, living in Ancient Rome was still challenging. This article will explore the lives of ordinary people during this fascinating era.

Economic Landscape: Rome as an Economic Hub

Architectural Advancements during Ancient Rome.
Image by: Brewminate

The Roman Empire was a hub of commerce and trade, which created numerous economic opportunities for the Roman People. The City of Rome, a bustling Metropolis, was a large market where people were used to buying and selling goods. 

Simon Baker, in his book “Ancient Rome: The Rise and Fall of an Empire,” stated that “Rome was a city of business, a center of exchange, and the heartbeat of the Mediterranean world.”

One critical element contributing to economic prosperity was Rome’s vast territorial conquests. Economic historians say Roman GDP per capita increased from approximately $570 (in 1990 international dollars) to over $1,000 between 100 BCE and 300 CE. 

Architectural Advancements: Invention of Arch

A view of the Roman Colosseum.
Image by: History Channel

The invention of the arch, which made it possible to build more prominent, intricate structures, was one of Ancient Rome’s most significant contributions to the fields of art and architecture. Ancient Romans were surrounded by public facilities, monuments, and works of art that constantly reminded them of their society’s strength and sophistication.

For instance, the Colosseum was a huge amphitheater where gladiatorial fights and other public spectacles could accommodate up to 80,000 spectators. Additionally, the aqueducts that supplied water to the city were functional and beautiful engineering marvels.

Extensive Network of Roads

An image showing the developed roads in the streets of Ancient Rome.
Image by: History

The Roman road network spanned over 250,000 miles, connecting the various parts of the empire. “All roads lead to Rome” is a famous saying that reflects the vast road network built by the Romans. 

The most famous of these roads is the Appian Way, built in 312 BC, which stretches from Rome to southern Italy. While the streets were primarily used by the wealthy and the military, ordinary people could also benefit from the improved transportation system, allowing for greater mobility and access to goods and services. 

Along the main roads, the Roman government established a network of post stations, or “mansiones,” to serve as rest stops and horse stables. This system, comparable to modern world rest areas, improved accessibility for regular people to long-distance travel. The roads also made transporting resources and goods throughout the empire easier, which supported trade and the economy.  

Legal System

A painting depicting the Legal System in Ancient Rome.
Image by: World History Encyclopedia

The Romans established a legal system founded on precedent and codified laws because they believed in the rule of law. The legal system was hierarchical, with different courts and magistrates handling various cases. 

The idea of “innocent until proven guilty” was one of ancient Rome’s most critical legal ideas. Another distinctive feature of the Roman legal system was the use of juries, groups of citizens selected randomly to hear cases and reach verdicts.

The Roman legal system allowed ordinary people to pursue justice and defend their rights. Even though the wealthy and powerful had more accessible access to legal counsel and a higher chance of succeeding in court, the legal system still offered some protection for the average person.

Cicero, a famous Roman orator and lawyer wrote extensively on the Roman legal system, including the importance of precedent and the role of the courts in upholding the law. He once said, “The safety of the people shall be the highest law.”

Overpopulation and the Use of Urine

A picture showing the toilets and sewerage system in Ancient Rome.
Image by: Phys Org

With estimates of the city’s population ranging from seventy million, overpopulation was a significant issue in ancient Rome. Overcrowding, lack of available housing, and stress on the infrastructure were the results.

The Roman government also built public urinals for both men and women. One of the most bizarre facts about the golden era was using urine. Urine was used as a cleaning agent. Collecting public urine and using it to clean clothing and structures was common. And even worse, like all the valuable things, there was a proper scheme for taxing urine. Emperor Vespasian AD 69-79 earned good money trading urine collected from public bathrooms.


The city’s ordinary people had a complex and varied experience with life during the Golden Age of Ancient Rome. Living in such a vibrant and culturally diverse society had many advantages, difficulties, and hardships. The citizens of ancient Rome had a wide range of challenges to overcome daily, from the economic opportunities available to the sanitation problems and overpopulation concerns.

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The Story of Tsutomu Yamaguchi, Who Survived Multiple Nuclear Attacks

One of the most unique and sad tales of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings is of Tsutomu Yamaguchi, who experienced both bombings and lived to tell the story. His terrifying encounters provide a window into the atrocities of nuclear conflict and the resilience of the human spirit in the face of unfathomable suffering.

Early Life and Career

A picture of Tsutomu in his youth.
Image by: India Times

Tsutomu Yamaguchi was born in Nagasaki, Japan, on March 16, 1916. He belonged to a simple, rural Japanese family. Yamaguchi was a gifted student who thrived in the classroom. Later, he pursued his engineering degree at Tokyo’s Waseda University.

One of the pictures of the legendary Tsutomu Yamaguchi.
Image by: Wikipedia

Yamaguchi returned to Nagasaki after receiving his degree and started working for Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, one of the country’s most prominent businesses. He was responsible for working at the company’s shipyard in Hiroshima, where he witnessed the detonation of the first atomic weapon.

Hiroshima Bombing

The devastating after-effects in Hiroshima after the nuclear bombing.
Image by: The National WWII Museum

Yamaguchi visited Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, as part of a tour for Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. He had just completed a meeting when he noticed a bright flash in the sky while returning to his hotel. In an interview with The Guardian, he subsequently described the incident as follows:

“I saw a light, a bright light, and I heard a noise, a really loud noise, like the sound of a big explosion. I was thrown into the air, and everything went dark.”

Yamaguchi was only three kilometers from the explosion’s core when it occurred. He had extensive burns all over his body, debris in his head, and other serious wounds. Despite his injuries, he returned to his hotel and spent the night in agony.

Yamaguchi found a train the following day and returned to Nagasaki, where he got medical attention for his wounds. 

Nagasaki Bombing

Aftermath of the Nagasaki bombing which left the area in ruins.
Image by: GBH

Despite his injuries, Yamaguchi returned to work at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries just days after the Hiroshima bombing. He was determined to help his country get back on its feet. However, fate had other plans for him.

On August 9, 1945, just three days after the Hiroshima incident, Yamaguchi was at work in Nagasaki when he heard the whistling sound of an incoming bomb. He immediately recognized the sound and realized that a second atomic attack was about to happen.

Yamaguchi narrated the bombardment of Nagasaki in his own words:

“Suddenly, the sky went black, and there was a tremendous noise. I felt myself being thrown into the air again, and when I looked up, I saw a mushroom cloud forming over the city.”

This time, Yamaguchi was just two kilometers from the explosion’s core. Once more, he was severely hurt, his body covered in burns and scars. He spent hours under the debris before being freed and brought to the hospital.

The Aftermath of the Bombing

The destruction caused by the bombing attacks.
Image by: All that’s Interesting

Yamaguchi resisted telling others his story in the years directly following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. He battled to cope with the trauma of his experiences and was plagued by survivor’s guilt, like many other bomb survivors.

In Japan, there was a widespread belief that survivors of the bombings carried a greater risk of health problems and genetic defects. Many survivors faced discrimination in employment, housing, and other areas of life as a result.

Anti-Nuclear War Activism

A news article related to Tsutomu Yamaguchi.
Image by: Facebook

Yamaguchi started talking about his encounters publicly decades later, in the 1950s. In 2005, Yamaguchi discussed his initial reluctance to share his tale in an interview with The Guardian. He said:

“At first, I did not want to talk about it, even to my family. I did not want to relive the memories of that terrible day. But as I grew older, I realized that it was my duty to tell my story, to bear witness to what happened.”

To raise awareness of the horrors of nuclear war and the necessity of striving for a peaceful world, he shared his story in several interviews, including those with the New York Times and the BBC. 

In 2006, he gave a speech and spread his message of peace in the United Nations. The Japanese government honored Yamaguchi with the Order of the Rising Sun in 2009 for his anti-nuclear activism. 

Death and Legacy

Old age picture of Yamaguchi.
Image by: Cultural News

Tsutomu Yamaguchi lived a long life after surviving the two atomic bomb attacks, and he passed away on January 4, 2010, at 93 from stomach cancer.

In the years following his death, numerous people and groups have continued Tsutomu Yamaguchi’s legacy. The “Tsutomu Yamaguchi Legacy of Hope Foundation,” founded in 2015 to foster peace, education, and cultural exchange, is among the most well-known.

In addition to the foundation, many other people and organizations worldwide have continued Yamaguchi’s legacy. His life has been the topic of books, documentaries, and other media. His support for disarmament and peace motivates people to work toward a more fair and peaceful world.


Tsutomu Yamaguchi’s survival of both atomic bombings is a powerful reminder of the human cost of nuclear war and the importance of peace. His life serves as a testament to the resilience of the human spirit. He said, “I don’t want anyone else ever to experience what I experienced. I don’t want anyone to suffer the way I suffered.”

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What People in 1923 Predicted About 2023

In 1923, people envisioned what the world might look like 100 years later. From science fiction authors to newspapers, people made many predictions about the technological and societal advancements that might be possible by 2023. Some predictions were far-fetched and unbelievable, while others were surprisingly accurate. In this article, we’ll look at some of the most exciting predictions made about 2023 back in 1923.

Scholars Predicted Advancements in Weather Forecasting

The 1923 magazine Science and Invention published an article predicting that humans would be able to control the weather. The author speculated about several possible methods for controlling the weather, which included using giant fans to move clouds and create rain. 

One article in the 1923 newspaper series by the University of Calgary stated that scholars “accurately predicted advances in meteorology and the ability to forecast weather more accurately.”

Image by: Twitter

Satirical Prediction of Women Shaving Their Heads

A passage in the novel “Crome Yellow” by Aldous Huxley, published in 1921, reads:

“I prophesy that before the end of this century, all the women will wear trousers, and they will find them more comfortable and convenient than skirts. They will also have their hair cut short, and blacken their teeth. Women will become taller, more muscular, and more flat-chested.”

Image by: Twitter

It’s worth noting that this passage is a satirical comment on the cultural changes that were taking place in the early 20th century. Although predictions of women wearing trousers and cutting their hair short became true, others, such as blackening their teeth, did not. 

Cities in the Sky

Image by: Gizmodo

In a 1923 issue of Science and Invention, an article titled “The Science of Tomorrow” predicted that by 2023, people would live in “a new world of sky-scraping aero-cities.” According to the prediction, enormous dirigibles or airships would transport people and products between floating towns in the clouds. 

Air travel is already a standard means of transportation. However, the concept of aero-cities and airship travel is still firmly rooted in science fiction.

No More Hard Work by 2023

Another optimist electrical engineer Dr. Charles P. Steinmetz made a prediction about the future of work. He believed that by 2023, advancements in technology would increase efficiency to the point where people would no longer need to work long hours. Instead, people would be able to get more done in less time, which would lead to shorter work days and more free time for leisure. 

Image by: BoredPanda

Teleportation Would Be Possible

In 1923, the French artist and writer possibility of the teleportation of humans by 2023. Robida described a device that could scan a person’s body, disintegrate it, and recreate it in a new location. Despite ongoing scientific advancements, teleportation remains impossible. However, quantum teleportation has made progress, which involves transferring quantum information from one place to another.

Image by: BBC Sky at Night Magazine

Optimistic Views on Life Expectancy

In 1923, some experts predicted that life expectancy would continue to rise, predicting a lifespan of 100 or 300 years, with some people potentially living much longer.

However, the reality today is that the average life expectancy varies depending on the country. In 2016, the average life expectancy of a baby born in the United States was 76.4 years, while in Australia, it was over 82 years, a decade more than the world average of 72.75 years.

While we may not have reached the wildly optimistic predictions of 100 or 300-year lifespans, there have been significant improvements in public health and medical science over the past century. These improvements have led to longer and healthier lives, and it is likely that life expectancy will continue to rise in the future.

Image by: Twitter

Cities Would Be Covered by Giant Glass Dome

During the 1920s, it was believed that air pollution and extreme weather conditions would make it impossible for people to live in cities. As a solution, some predicted that giant glass domes would cover cities. In 1923, an article in the Chicago Tribune suggested that “in the year 2023, the problem of keeping the rain, the cold, and the wind out of our great cities will have been solved by using mammoth glass domes.” 

While the prediction about giant glass domes did not come true, some attempts have been made to build enclosed cities or biodomes for scientific research and ecological purposes.

Image by: Wikipedia

Final Word

Many of the forecasts made by people in the 1920s were influenced by their hopes and anxieties for the future. Some people were enthusiastic about technology’s ability to fix the world’s problems, while others were concerned that technological advancement would lead to social and environmental degradation. With that said, looking back at these predictions can provide insights into the ambitions and anxieties of the previous era. 

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6 Shocking Things Considered Normal in the American Wild West

The American Wild West was a time of lawlessness and rugged individualism. The only goal of the Westerners was survival! The frontier’s unique challenges and dangers shaped the period’s cultural norms. You’d be amazed to know that many practices considered normal at the time would be shocking today.

From public executions to photographing dead bodies, the Wild West was where the harsh realities of life on the frontier defined societal norms. This article will explore some of the most shocking things considered normal in the American Wild West.

Photographing the Dead Bodies

Charley Pierce, a famous American outlaw. Image by:  Pinterest

Reassuring the public of an outlaw’s death was so tricky in the Wild West that it became customary to photograph the body. When an outlaw died or was killed, they would be pictured standing against the wall before the body stiffened up. 

Only after this practice was the body buried. The images were also required as verification while receiving awards. When there was no photograph, there was no certainty that the outlaw was dead.

Traveling Corpse

Image by: Stillwater News Press

One of the Wild West’s most shocking and bizarre tales is that of Elmer McCurdy and his traveling corpse. Elmer McCurdy was a notorious outlaw whose life ended in 1911 after he was shot dead by law enforcement. 

However, his body was not buried. An undertaker preserved it, and the mummified body was put to display for about sixty years before a proper burial in Oklahoma. Bizarre, isn’t it?

Public Executions

Image by: eVanNicole / Wikimedia Commons / CC BY-SA 4.0

Public executions were carried out to maintain law and discourage crime. Large audiences used to gather around to witness the executions. It was common for vendors to sell food and drinks to the spectators while they saw the executions. Talk about sinister theater, right?  

The legal system in the Wild West was frequently untested and prone to errors. Numerous public executions took place as a result of erroneous trials. At times, people were executed for crimes they did not commit, adding to the controversy surrounding public executions. Such executions were also racially biased. Minorities, especially African Americans, were punished more than whites, adding to the inequalities that existed in American society at that time. The practice, despite its cruelty, was widely accepted until abolished in the late 20th century.

Exploitative Prostitution 

mage by: Daily Mail

The rapid growth of towns and cities in the American Wild West brought a demand for prostitution. Poor women with limited work opportunities were forced into prostitution to survive. 

Many of these women were immigrants or members of minorities, making them especially vulnerable to exploitation. They were frequently exposed to severe working circumstances, including long hours, little pay, and physical assault. 

Prostitutes were also in considerable danger of developing sexually transmitted diseases and being assaulted by customers or pimps.

Additionally, local newspapers of that time would identify and mention prostitutes as a symbol of disgrace. There was a conflicting attitude towards prostitutes in the west. They were both desired for their sexual services (joy) and reviled for their perceived moral corruption (misery), as narrated in Anne Butler’s book “Daughters of Joy, Sisters of Misery.”

Significant Violence and Lawlessness

Image by: ArtStation

The American Wild West was a time of widespread bloodshed and anarchy. The lack of robust law enforcement created a dangerous atmosphere in the state where violence was a constant concern.

There were numerous sources of violence, including confrontations between settlers and Native American tribes or disagreements over land and resources. It was common for people in the wild west to carry firearms in public. It was considered a sign of bravery and toughness, widely accepted and encouraged.

Duels, brawls, and other forms of violence were common, and it was often necessary to defend oneself.

The Short-Lived Camel Craze of the American Frontier

Camels were brought to the Wild West by the US Army as an experiment to see if they could be used as pack animals in the desert terrain of the Southwest. The experiment began in the mid-1850s and lasted until the early 1860s.

According to David Roberts, author of “The Last Camel Charge: The Untold Story of America’s Desert Military Experiment,” the US Army imported 75 camels from the Middle East to Texas in 1856, and by 1860, there were 34 camels stationed at Camp Verde in the Texas Hill Country.

However, camels were not well-liked by soldiers and civilians alike, as they were seen as stubborn and difficult to handle. In addition, their strange appearance and unpleasant smell made them unpopular.

The use of camels in the Wild West was short-lived, as the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861 diverted the attention and resources of the US Army. Many of the camels were sold off, and others were simply released into the wild.

Final Word

In conclusion, the American Wild West was a time of great danger and lawlessness. It is marked by unique cultural norms and practices that often shock modern standards. From public executions and widespread use of violence to the treatment of women, the Wild West was far from the romanticized version often portrayed in popular culture.

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Discover the 7 Best Graphic Novels About Modern History

The world of comics isn’t limited to superhero battles or Archie and Jughead stories. They can be the gateway to learning about historical events that took place decades ago.

Graphic illustrations in comics about history can capture the essence of historical events, addressing prevalent issues by looking into the past visually.

If you want to dive into a history lesson without the boredom, take a look at the following best graphic novels about modern history, detailing historical events from a unique perspective.


Image by Amazon

MAUS, by Art Spiegelman, depicts the events of the Holocaust from a survivor’s perspective. The author, however, takes a completely postmodern approach while trying to narrate his father’s story as a Polish Jew survivor of World War II.

Spiegelman uses animals such as Mice, Cats, Pigs, Dogs, etc., to depict different identities, such as Jews, Germans, Poles, and Americans, and recounts events of the War and Nazi concentration sites from 1933-1938. This makes the illustrations more captivating and unique.

2. Persepolis

Image by Readings

An autobiographical take visualizing the Islamic Revolution of 1978-79, Persepolis is written by Marjane Satrapi, who draws upon her life’s years in Iran and Austria. The title refers to the Persian Empire’s historical capital.

Through a series of black-and-white images, Satrapi lets readers picture her rebellious, alter-ego personality in Islamized and war-torn Iran. The series of comics follow her life’s journey to Europe, where she navigates Western life and then makes her way back to a Post-Islamic Revolution Iran.

3. They Called Us Enemy

mage by Amazon

This autobiographical memoir illustrates George Takei’s Japanese American identity subjected to legalized racism as his family gets imprisoned in American Concentration Camps during World War II in mid 1940s.

Takei retells his childhood and events in the camp surrounded by barbed wires, where he witnesses fights, arrests, and states of emergency. As Takei’s mother denounces her citizenship, the end of the war brings concerns of heightened racism.

Readers can get enthralled by visual depictions of conversations that stem from fear of persecution in this historically packed graphic novel.

4. Wake: The Hidden History of Women-Led Slave Revolts

Image by Amazon

In this graphic memoir, Rebecca Hall tells the story of Black women and their significant role in leading slave revolts. She employs research in archives to create a story that describes the lives of Adono and Alele, two black slave women who rebelled for freedom.

The comics utilize a superhero style of illustrations to depict stories of other enslaved women who were part of the rebellion of 1712 and led slave movements for freedom in New York. Hall uses her historical imagination to draw attention to their narratives.

5. Palestine

Image by Goodreads

This graphic novel by Joe Sacco sketches the events taking place on the West Bank and Gaza Strip in the early 90s, marked by the failure of the peace process initiated by the Clinton government before the end of the first Uprising.

The somewhat cartoonish illustrations deviate from mainstream perceptions of the conflict between Israel and Palestine and explain the stories of many Palestinians who have suffered tremendously due to it. Sacco’s storytelling is exceptionally comical but, at the same time, genuine and hard-hitting.

6. Mark: Trilogy

Image by Vox

John Lewis, a U.S. congressman and a prominent leader in the Civil Rights Movement, gives an account of his life’s story through this autobiographical comic trilogy. The black and white illustrations provide an insider view of protests raged by Civil Rights Activists in America as they confronted state troopers in the 1960s.

The illustrations in this trilogy sequentially follow Lewis’ life as a young boy in the fields of Alabama. It goes up to his role as an activist and finally as a U.S. congressman preparing for the inauguration of America’s first Black President.

7. Nathan Hale’s Hazardous Tales: Treaties, Trenches, Mud, and Blood

Image by Amazon

This graphic novel by Nathan Hale engages readers in its true stories of World War I. Similar to ‘MAUS’, Hale uses animals for people to describe famous battles, world leaders, and various technological developments on the cusp of WWI from 1914-1918.

Focusing on the Western Front, the author portrays himself as a war spy about to be hanged and retells the war’s incidents to the provost and executioner. The comics use intelligent humor while adding complexity to unknown aspects of the past.

Final Word

These best historical comics that explore historical events from thought-provoking angles are perfect for people who want to add to their knowledge. Choose the ones you’re the most excited about, and let the fun begin.

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6 Best Games About Historical Pandemics

The world has seen numerous pandemics, disastrously affecting public health. It’s crucial for everyone to be aware of their causes, symptoms, and preventive measures. 

However, most people consider historical pandemics to be not so interesting to gain information about because the long hours of textbook reading tire them out. A fun-filled way to gain this information is through video games! Here are some of the best games about historical pandemics having the perfect ratio of science and adventure.

Global Pandemics: Plague of Athens

Historical Time Period: 4th Century BCE

Image by: global pandemics

If you want to dive into a history lesson without boredom, look at the Global Pandemics: Plague of Athens. Designed to enhance students’ understanding of the role of pandemics in world history, this game offers a fresh perspective on historical events.

The new product integrates digital storytelling with interactive learning design to provide a rich, complex pedagogical experience that helps in a better understanding of the topic.

Players can choose from five significant pandemics in human history and get a real-time experience. The first chapter introduces Nikos, a physician during the Plague of Athens, fighting hard to cure the sick while rethinking his purpose. The interactive historical game series gives a fun touch to history.

A Plague Tale: Innocence

Historical Time Period:  1347 to 1351

Survival has always been a vital element in video games. Based on the deadly Black Plague, this historical pandemic game revolves around Amicia de Rune and her ill brother Hugo as they find their survival from the French Inquisition soldiers and the deadly rats. Set in 14th-century France, this game blends action and adventure phases.

The game mainly consists of survival puzzles and requires great tactics and puzzle-solving abilities. The player plays Amicia, using stealth and limited equipment to escape from troops and rats, incorporating aspects of survival horror games. The award-winning game is considered one of the best games about historical pandemics. 

Killer Flu

Historical Time Period: 1880 to date

Image by: engaget

Developed by the UK Clinical Virology Network, this pandemic game demonstrates how viruses mutate and how difficult it is to spread the virus without mutations. The game focuses on an Avian flu pandemic.

The player takes the role of the virus itself, trying to spread, infect, and mutate throughout the human race. The killer flu pandemic game has added levels of difficulty, making it even more challenging and exciting to play. 

Great Flu

Historical Time Period: June 2009 to August 2010

Image by: popular science

To spread awareness about the Swine Flu, a Dutch Researcher has developed this highly interactive game. Although a bit away from reality, the game lets the users choose their virus, spread it, and then adapt strategies to contain it.

Trying to control a fast-spreading deadly virus is not very simple, and the number of infected can increase rapidly. This game is a fun depiction of some of the realistic alternatives accessible to people facing a pandemic.

A Plague Tale: Requiem

Historical Time Period:  1347 to 1351

Developed as a sequel to Plague Tale: innocence, this upcoming online game is set to release in October 2022. Following the sets of its predecessor, this game takes the story of Amicia and Hugo further.

After escaping the French soldiers, the siblings arrive in Southern France, where they embark on a new journey of finding a cure for Hugo’s disease while combating another wave of rats from The Black Plague.

Antidote COVID-19

Historical Time Period: 2019 to date

The latest edition in the pandemic history, COVID-19, has attracted many game developers to make games inspired by unfortunate circumstances. The games not only proved to be a great pastime during quarantine but also helped spread awareness about the COVID pandemic situation.

Antidote COVID-19 is developed by Pyson Games under the guidance of the World Health Organization (WHO) and input from public health experts. The game is aimed to help individuals protect themselves from the virus and learn about their immune systems in a fun way.

Final Thoughts

These best games about historical pandemics are perfect for understanding pandemics and their cures through history in a non-tedious way. Choose the ones that attract you the most, and let a fun-filled learning experience begin!

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7 Best Graphic Novels About the Ancient World

The ancient world is full of interesting events, historical battles, centennial disputes, and classical themes hidden between boring old history books.

If you’re keen to learn about the happenings of the ancient world in a far more captivating way, graphic novels are your best bet. Alternate realities paired with enthralling visuals highlight historical events from various perspectives.

Here are some of the best graphic novels about the ancient world that will leave you mesmerized by the past:

1. Rome West

323 CE

Image by AIPTcomics

Exploring an alternate reality of the New World, a thousand years before Columbus, Rome West offers a vivid description of world events through the eyes of a Roman family. 

The engaging graphics cover themes of revolution and expansion as the Romans experience war in America. The authors make you deep dive into the ancient world through questions of ‘what if?’ as Romans change the course of America’s history, establishing a colony 1000 years before the arrival of Columbus.  

2. Perpetua’s Journey

203 CE

Image by Goodreads

Perpetua’s journey illustrates the tale of Vibia Perpetua, an openly declaring Christian mother residing in Roman Africa, ordered to death for professing her religion. The graphic novel offers a combination of powerful themes such as feminism and Christianity.

The detailed illustrations induce visual storytelling of the ancient Phoenician city of Carthage, where Christianity gains popularity. It moves readers into reimagining life as a Christian woman in Roman North Africa in 203 CE. 

3. 300

480 BC

Image by Amazon

If you enjoy fictional retelling of historical battles, the 300 comic series is the one for you. Adapted into the world-renowned film ‘The 300 Spartans’, this comic book depicts the Battle of Thermopylae and Sparta’s King Leonidas’ attempt to invade Persia.

With its gritty yet beautiful art, the 300 comic series engulfs the reader in the tale of Spartans as they launch themselves into battle. Hyper-violent scenes combined with well-written dialogue become enjoyable for readers interested in ancient wars.  

Frank Miller’s brilliant art and storytelling make the 300 comic series one of the best graphic novels about the ancient world.

4. The Book of Genesis

5th and 6th BC

Image by Wikipedia

A quite literal illustration of the original ‘Book of Genesis’, this graphic novel reproduces the Bible word by word. Albeit its controversial nature, Robert Crumb manages to lend the illustrations his unique perspective on the human condition.

Readers can appreciate Crumb’s signature scratchy and heavily cross-hatched drawing style for all illustrations that provide a humanizing effect to the characters. Instead of giving the religious text a satirical touch, the comics are a must-read, honest and genuine interpretation of the Bible.

5. The Pack

1351-1334 BC

Image by Amazon

The Pack is intense and full of action as it tells the story of two Nubian slave assassins in Ancient Egypt assigned to kill Pharaoh Seti of the Southern Kingdom. Their trials and tribulations are portrayed in a unique painterly style.

The author uses a combination of visual and verbal, including Egyptian hieroglyphs, to add variety and a nice ancient touch to the story. Instead of whitewashing the tale, the protagonists are shown to be dark-skinned Africans which adds even more dimension.

The Pack will transport you to an Ancient Egyptian Tale you won’t forget soon!

6. Batman: The Return of Bruce Wayne


Image by Wikipedia

In this action-packed, time-spanning graphic novel, Bruce Wayne finds himself at the dawn of history, fighting evil cavemen through the power of his famous utility belt. As he becomes engrossed in battle, he is transported first to Puritan times and then to the 18th Century.

The comics follow the superhero across different ancient time zones as he builds himself an identity and fights crime. The time-traveling Bruce Wayne is featured in the spotlight through a signature superhero style. 

7. Batman Ninja

1185-1603 CE

Image by Amazon

This animated feature places the Dark Knight in feudal Japan, where the hero’s worst enemies take the form of feudal lords. Combining the Hero vs. Villain action with an ancient setting, Batman Ninja is one of the finest renditions in the Batman series.

Incorporating an anime style into the visuals, the story becomes even more interesting for fans. This animation imparts a unique touch to the Batman franchise, capturing the heroic nature of Batman within a land ruled by sword-yielding Samurais and Ninjas as assassins.

Final Word

The ancient world is filled with fascinating events waiting to be discovered. All of these amazing graphic novels are a must-read to dive into history. 

Additionally, you can also check out History Adventure’s Chrome browser web app, Global Pandemics: Plague of Athens, which tells the story of Nikos of Athens, a physician during the Plague of Athens, 429 BCE, who struggles to treat the multitude who fall ill during this world-upending ordeal, causing him to question everything he holds dear, from his faith in Apollo, healer under the gods, to the meaning of his Hippocratic Oath, and what is truly at stake in medical ethics.

Make sure to add these best graphic novels about the ancient world to your reading list and get enlightened about history in a captivating and exciting way.